DOC designation of origin for wines from the northern Italian region of Veneto. The red wine varieties Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara, Rossignola, Negrara, Barbera and Sangiovese are cultivated on almost 5000ha of vineyards in the hinterland of the city of Verona, with Corvina being able to provide up to 70% of the blend. Valpolicella is traditionally a rather light wine to be drunk young with pleasant cherry aromas and a harmonious structure. Only since the 1990s has a denser, more intense and more firmly structured type of wine prevailed, which is marketed in particular under the additional designation Superiore. These wines are often pressed using the so-called Ripasso method. The most renowned type of wine in the Valpolicella region is the Amarone. In addition, sweet Recioto is also produced.
independent designation of origin of the A.C. Côtes-du-Rhone-Villages in the area of the municipality of the same name in the Vaucluse department in southern France. From the approximately 270ha of vineyards, white, rosé and red wines come from the typical grape varieties. Red wines and rosés must be made from at least 50% Grenache.
DOC designation of origin for wines from the valley of the same name in the northern Italian region of Lombardy. The red wine variety Chiavennasca (Nebbiolo) is cultivated on a little more than 600ha of vineyards, as well as Merlot, Rossola, Pignola, Valtellinese and Brugnola. Under the name Sforzato (Sfursàt), a dry straw wine is produced in the style of Amarone, which must have an alcohol content of at least 14% vol.
Vanilla taste, actually vanilla flavor
a kind of woody taste that is mainly created by aging in barriques. The substance on which it is based is vanillin, chemically vanillaldehyde, an aromatic aldehyde that occurs bound to sugar in the essential oils of numerous plants. It is released by heating the wooden staves during barrel construction and then leached out of the wood by the alcohol in the wine.
scented of vegetables, grass or leaves; Term used in wine language for aromas reminiscent of green plants, as opposed to floral or fruit aromas. Vegetable aromas can be quite pleasantly noticeable in the context of a complex bouquet; on their own, they usually appear crude or even flawed. Dominant vegetal notes are often due to the processing of unripe grapes.
Italian for late harvest, also for wine made from late harvested, fully ripe grapes; the designation is not provided for by Italian wine law, but is occasionally used for semi-sweet or sweet late-harvest wines.
White wine grape variety from the Spanish region of Castile-León, which is mainly cultivated in the Rueda wine-growing region. The wines develop a scent of gooseberries and apples, but can also show a pronounced vegetal or mineral character.
a chemical reaction in which acids react with alcohols to form esters and water.
White wine grape variety of the Central and Western Mediterranean; it is cultivated on almost 3900 hectares of vineyards in Italy, especially in the coastal landscapes of the Tyrrhenian Sea and on the island of Sardinia, on the French island of Corsica and on the French Mediterranean coast. It is believed that Vermentino is of Spanish origin and belongs to the Malvasia group. The late-ripening variety produces pleasantly fruity, juicy white wines. The only DOCG wine based on Vermentino is Vermentino di Gallura.
Vernaccia di San Gimignano
DOCG designation of origin for white wines from Italian Tuscany Vernaccia is an Italian white wine grape variety that is mainly cultivated in the area around the Tuscan city of San Gimignano. Vernaccia di San Gimignano was the first Italian DOC wine in 1966 and was among the first to receive DOCG status in 1987. The wines are delicately fruity with a lightly spicy scent, juicy and firm on the palate; better qualities are occasionally vinified or expanded in barriques.
trickling, trickling through
shed flowers or young berries between the first flowering and the final formation of the berries; in principle, this shedding is a natural process within the vegetative cycle of the vine and its fruit development - however, if too many flowers are shed, this will affect the yield. The grape varieties Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Pinot Noir, the Austrian Neuburger, the Italian Picolit, and the red wine grape variety Sankt Laurent are particularly susceptible to trickling. In addition to such variety-specific characteristics, the reasons for trickling can also lie in disturbed pollination as a result of temperatures that are too low or in a lack of supply of the vine with the nutrient boron.
A blended wine (also cuvée) is a wine composed of several grape varieties in order to combine the positive properties of the individual grape varieties and to create a multi-layered wine. An example would be a blend wine to benefit equally from the scent of the Traminer and the acidity of the Riesling. Of course, the uniqueness of certain grape varieties is lost through the blending, which is why the blended wine has both advantages and disadvantages.
Red wine grape variety from the north of the Italian region Piedmont; the late-ripening variety is cultivated on almost 180 hectares (1999) of vineyards and goes into the production of the DOC or DOCG wines Boca, Bramaterra and Ghemme. In the Oltrepò Pavese area, Vespolina is also known as Ughetta.
showing numerous aromas; Term in wine language for high-quality wines with a rich spectrum of aromas and great elegance. Complex wines do not have to be strong or heavy, as is often assumed.
Vin de Paille
French for straw wine. specialty of the French wine-growing region of Jura; however, the grapes only rarely dry on straw, but mostly in small wooden boxes or on wooden slats. The wines are made from red or white wine grape varieties such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay or Savagnin and ferment for up to 24 months. They are then aged in wooden barrels for several months and marketed under the L'Ètoile or Arbois designation of origin.
process grapes or must into wine; the term generally includes the entirety of the work steps of winemaking from the reception of the grapes to the bottling of the finished wine; but it can also only mean the stage from fermentation to acid reduction.
Wine specialty from the French wine-growing region of Jura, made from overripe Chardonnay and Savagnin grapes; it matures in barriques for at least six years, which are not refilled during this time. The wine comes into extensive contact with atmospheric oxygen, but at certain times of the year a layer of pile forms on its surface, which protects it from oxidation too quickly. The wines, marketed under the Arbois and Château-Chalon designations of origin, are characterized by their dense yellow color and their particular aroma reminiscent of dry nuts, spices and honey.
Vin Doux Naturel
French, natural sweet wine, abbr. V.D.N., fortified and therefore sweet liqueur wine from the fully ripe grapes before the end of fermentation; the term is mainly used in southern France. Such Vins Doux Naturell are marketed under the Denomination of Origin Banyuls, Muscat, de Beaumes-de-Venise, Rasteau, Rivesaltes.
Italian holy wine; Straw wine from the Italian regions of Tuscany and Trentino-Alto Adige; it is made from mostly white grapes, which lie on wooden slats or hang on frames to dry for several weeks or months after the harvest. Following fermentation, during which a certain residual sugar content remains unfermented, the young wine is aged in small, half-filled and hermetically sealed barrels. These are stored for at least two years in the so-called vinsantaia, usually an attic, where they are exposed to both summer heat and winter cold. In the summer, the residual sugar begins to ferment spontaneously year after year under the influence of yeasts from the cask stock. The result of this procedure are alcohol-heavy wines with more or less pronounced sweetness and aromas of nuts, apricots, honey and spices. Vin santo is marketed under a number of independent DOC designations of origin. Vin santo del Chianti, Vin santo del Chianti classico or Vin santo del Chianti di Montepulciano. Under the additional designation Occhio di pernice, Vin santo is also produced from red egg grape varieties in numerous areas.
DOC designation of origin for wines from northern Portugal; their cultivation area is the largest in the country and covers a good 34,000 hectares of vineyards. The Vinho Verde area is divided into six areas: Amarante, Basto, Braga, Lima, Moncao and Penafiel. The climate is humid, which gives rise to the lush vegetation that inspired the name of the Denomination of Origin; Grapes of different qualities grow on the barren, sandy granite soil. The white Alvarinho, Avesso, Azal, Loureiro and Trajadura as well as the red Azal tinto, Brancelho, Espadeiro, Pedral and Vinhao are cultivated. Most of the wines have hardly more than 8.5% vol alcohol and appear extremely light, often slightly sparkling; the sparkling red vinho is considered the lightest red wine in the world. The only powerful type of wine in the apellation comes from the area around the city of Moncao and is made from the white wine grape variety Alvarinho.
Liquid or degree of toughness of crying; it depends on the alcohol content, particularly that of high-grade alcohols such as glycerin, and on the sugar and extract content of the wine: the higher these values, the more viscous the wine is. Particularly in the case of sweet wines, increased viscosity, which manifests itself in pronounced tears (church window), is an indication of a high sugar content. If it exceeds a certain level, especially in dry wines, it is considered a wine disease. It is then said that the wine is mild.
Abbreviation of Vinum Optimum Rare Signature or Very Old Rare Sherry, a quality grade of sherry.
Abbreviation of Vinum Optimum Signatum or Very Old Sherry, a quality grade of Sherry.