Piedmont Wine Lexicon - E

stainless steel tank

Fermentation in a stainless steel tank is a reductive fermentation that uses less oxygen than fermentation in wooden barrels. The stainless steel tank spread in the wine business from the 1960s. Its advantages are high standards in terms of hygiene, because a tank made of stainless steel is absolutely easy to care for and the high chromium content on the surface combines with the oxygen to form a protective layer that prevents rust.

In addition, a Stainless steel tank absolutely impermeable to air. Since it doesn't work entirely without oxygen, the wine can be supplied with dosed oxygen via a modern, computer-aided system. Precise temperature regulation is possible via other channels. Another advantage of this storage is the neutrality of the stainless steel tank, which does not give off any taste of its own to the wine. The enzymatic processes delayed by the low exchange of oxygen ensure that the fruit aromas in particular are retained, which is additionally supported by storage at cool temperatures. White wines in particular benefit from the freshness gained, while red wines tend to rely on oxidative fermentation.


Extract stands for a thickened or dried extract from animal or vegetable substances. In vinology, the extract describes all non-volatile substances that do not evaporate when the wine is heated. These are minerals such as magnesium, sodium, calcium, potassium and phosphate, tartaric, malic and lactic acid, pigments, simple and multiple sugars, tannins such as phenols and tannins, glycerin, proteins, pectins and various trace elements such as zinc and iodine , Copper, iron, fluorine and others. In total there are hundreds of ingredients that are left behind when vaporizing.

The extract content is an indicator used to determine the quality of a wine. The higher the extract of a wine, the higher its quality. The extract gives the wine its complexity, color, aroma and shelf life. The highest extract proportions of up to 30 grams per liter are found in older wines with already shriveled berries and a low proportion of juice. The extract content can easily be determined by the viscosity of the wine or the degree of viscosity. The wine extract is measured using the tobacco formula.


The wine label contains several information about the wine for the customer. It's printed on a wine bottle. In addition to mandatory information, wine houses can also voluntarily provide the customer with information about the wine and are obliged to be truthful in this regard.

The information that is required on the label in Germany includes the quality level, the alcohol content, the bottle volume, the origin, the official number of origin, the bottler, information about any sulphurisation and more. Furthermore, the customer will usually find information on the vintage, the flavor and the grape variety on the label.

Oak barrel

Wines are usually stored in oak barrels. On the one hand, oak wood is fine-pored, dense and elastic. On the other hand, the wood gives off additional flavor notes to the wine and therefore leads to its refinement. More information on this under "Barrique".

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