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Babarolo Piedmont Wine Lexicon - E

Stainless steel tank

A fermentation in a stainless steel tank is a reductive fermentation that requires less oxygen than fermentation in a wooden barrel (barrique). The stainless steel tank became widespread in the wine business from the 1960s. Its advantages are high standards in terms of hygiene, because a tank made of stainless steel is absolutely easy to clean and the high chromium content on the surface combines with the oxygen to form a protective layer that prevents rusting.

In addition, a Stainless steel tank absolutely impermeable to air. Since it is also not possible without oxygen, the wine can be dosed with oxygen using a modern, computer-aided system. Precise temperature regulation is possible via other channels. Another advantage of this storage is the neutrality of the stainless steel tank, which does not give the wine any taste of its own. The enzymatic processes, which are delayed due to the low exchange of oxygen, ensure that the fruit aromas in particular are retained, which is additionally supported by storage at cool temperatures. White wines in particular benefit from the freshness gained, while red wines tend to rely more on oxidative fermentation.


Extract stands for a thickened or dried extract from animal or vegetable substances. In vinology, the extract is used to describe all non-volatile substances that do not evaporate when the wine is heated. These are minerals such as magnesium, sodium, calcium, potassium and phosphate, tartaric, malic and lactic acid, pigments, simple and multiple sugars, tannins such as phenols and tannins, glycerine, proteins, pectins and various trace elements such as zinc and iodine , copper, iron, fluorine and others. All in all, there are hundreds of ingredients that remain after evaporation.

The extract content is an indicator for determining the quality of a wine. The higher the extract of a wine, the higher its quality. The extract gives the wine its complexity, colour, aroma and durability. Older wines with already shriveled berries and a low juice content have the highest extract percentages of up to 30 grams per liter. The extract content can be easily determined from the viscosity of the wine or from the degree of viscosity. The wine extract is measured using the Tabarie formula.


The wine label contains several pieces of information about the wine for the customer. It's printed on a wine bottle. In addition to mandatory information, wine houses can also voluntarily provide the customer with information about the wine and are committed to the truth in this regard.

The information that is required on the label in Germany includes the quality level, the alcohol content, the bottle volume, the origin, the official origin number, the bottler, information about any sulphurisation and much more. Furthermore, the customer usually finds information about the vintage, the flavor and the grape variety on the label.

Oak barrel

Wines are usually stored in oak barrels. On the one hand, oak wood is fine-pored, dense and elastic. On the other hand, the wood gives off additional flavors to the wine and therefore leads to its refinement. More information on this under "Barrique".