Maconnais wine-growing area south of the Côte Chalonnaise named after the city of Mâcon in French Burgundy; a total of about 1400 ha (2003) are under vines, mostly planted with Chardonnay. In addition to the regional appellations Mâcon, Mâcon Supérieur and Mâcon Villages, there are five municipal appellations: Pouilly,-Fuissé, Pouilly-Vinzelles, Pouilly-Loché, Viré-Clessé and Saint-Véran. The area's small percentage of red wine is made mainly from Gamay and is marketed under the Mâcon, Mâcon Supérieur or Mâcon Villages designation of origin.
Mass of berries mostly crushed in the grape mill. If not previously destemmed, the stalks are also part of the mash. Mashing (mashing in) releases enzymes, flavorings and minerals (extracts) and makes it easier to separate the juice from the berries. Almost all red wines are macerated before pressing or fermentation. However, the maceration time before the must or the fermented wine is pressed depends on the type of wine desired: red wines can stand on the skins for up to several weeks to ensure that all the coloring matter and tannins are leached out by the alcohol.
Method of fermenting red wines, in which the mash is heated to 67-85°C and pressed after a standing time. The must is then usually cooled to around 20°C and fermentation takes place under white wine fermentation conditions. The process is mainly used when simple, drinkable wines that are ready to drink quickly are to be achieved. It is not suitable for pressing high-quality, tannic and aging wines. Insufficient recooling can lead to extremely turbulent fermentation with strong foaming and high fermentation temperatures, which leads to so-called boiling: the yeasts degenerate, acetic acid bacteria develop, acetic acid is formed and the wine turns brown.
Method of fermenting red wines, in which the fermentation of the must takes place on the skins, i.e. in contact with the grape skins; this leads to the extraction of tannins and colorings. Depending on the grape variety and the desired type of wine, the mash fermentation can last between a few days and six or eight weeks. Many winegrowers switch on a further standing time before or after the mash fermentation. The total duration of maceration and standing time was greatly reduced in many wine-growing regions during the 1980s and 1990s because it can lead to the extraction of hard and bitter tannins in numerous red wine grape varieties. In contrast to heating the mash, mash fermentation produces firmly structured, complex and long-lasting wines; Fermentation temperatures of more than 30°C promote the color extraction, lower ones the expression of the varietal aromas.
Duration of contact between the must and the berry skins on the mash, which is particularly necessary for color and tannin extraction in red wine production; it used to be up to a month or longer, but was greatly reduced in many growing areas in the 1980s and 1990s because it can lead to the extraction of hard and bitter tannins in numerous red wine grape varieties.
southernmost and most extensive A.C. commune appellation of the Haut Medoc in France's Bordeaux region; From 1360 ha (2000) of vineyards come 21 classified Grand Crus, including the famous Grand Cru Château Margaux, 25 Crus Bourgeois and 38 Crus artisans. The wines of Margaux are considered to be the most refined and elegant of the Mèdoc. Cabernet Sauvignon predominates in the Cuveè of the plants, followed by Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdon.Only in a few exceptional cases does Merlot make up more than 50% of the blend
Downy mildew (Peonospora) and powdery mildew (Odium) are two of the most dangerous diseases for grapevines, which are caused by fungi. Mildew infestation can cause significant damage to vineyards. Since powdery mildew is an epidemic that has migrated from North America, the native grape varieties have hardly been able to develop resistance to the pathogen and are therefore particularly allergic. Since the pathogen overwinters on the grape varieties, it must be completely eliminated, otherwise the grapes will be infested again next year.
In the case of powdery mildew, the pathogen is the egg fungus. It can be recognized by the grey-white mushroom lawn and the net-like structure on the vines. The leaves appear mealy and moldy. The affected grapes stop growing and burst open or wither. Grapes that are already infested must be taken out of circulation immediately, as even the smallest infestation makes them inedible.
In the case of downy mildew, the responsible pathogen is again the egg fungus. Round and yellowish oily spots form on the leaves, the fungal growth is only visible on the underside of the leaf. The affected vines dry up, the leaves wither. Here, too, the grapes must be removed at the slightest infestation.
To prevent mildew, airy growth conditions for the vines are recommended, which should also be trimmed regularly. Nitrogen should also be avoided when fertilizing, as this weakens the vines' defenses. The regular removal of weeds and watering the roots is also helpful, since wetness on the vines is a risk factor for powdery mildew.
The pathogen also avoids herbs such as chervil, basil and chives, as these antibodies against the possess mushroom. This can be exploited by planting these herbs near the vines. It is also important to react in good time in the event of an infestation and to remove all infested parts of the grape variety, as the pathogen threatens to spread from there.
Malbec (synonym typical)
Malbec is an intensive and highly complex grape variety, but because of its high care requirements and its high susceptibility to gray mold rot, downy mildew and wood disease Eutypiosis is not as common as it used to be. The original growing area of Malbec are large regions in the southwest of France. The grape variety resulting from the crossing of the Magdeleine Noire and the Prunelard now has a cultivation area of 34,000 hectares. It thrives best in the dry, hot and wind and weather-protected regions in Argentina at the foot of the Andes. That's why Argentina is currently the main growing area for the grape variety.
Malbec is an extremely dark blue-black berry that hardly lets any light shine through when poured, whereupon a wine from Malbec in exciting dark purple tones creates a special atmosphere. No less exciting is the taste, which has a spicy and fruity undertone in the wine and a wide range of aromas from plums, blueberries, cherries, chocolate, tobacco, juniper berries to bay leaves. A spicy finish provides a lingering finish. As far as storage is concerned, the varietal benefits from being aged in barriques. The grape variety is one of six approved blend varieties for the Bordeaux blend. Another special feature is the presence of almost 400 synonyms. In its country of origin, France, the Malbec is best known as the Cot.