second lowest category of German quality wines, lowest level of Prädikat wines. Wines of all flavors that may not be improved are marketed under the Kabinett name. Depending on the growing area, the minimum must weight is 67-82°Oe.
collectively various calcium compounds, especially carbonate of lime (calcium carbonate, CACO3), which is of great importance in viticulture and in cellar technology. Calcareous, i.e. mostly relatively poor, fresh soils are often found on the site of former seas. In Germany some of the best white wines grow on them, in the French Pomerol region excellent red wine from Merlot comes from calcareous soils. In order to compensate for any lime deficiencies in the soil, calcium compounds are used as fertilizer (liming) to improve the pH value and thus the availability of nutrients. In the cellar, carbonate of lime is used in its pure form to deacidify wines. The acids are neutralized, carbon dioxide escapes and the calcium is separated out in the form of insoluble compounds.
cooling of must or wine; The aim of the treatment is, on the one hand, to cool down fermenting musts to the desired fermentation temperature and, on the other hand, to cold stabilize ready-to-fill wines by accelerating the precipitation of cream of tartar and cold-sensitive wine ingredients such as protein. In order to save energy, ground tartar can be added to the wine in the so-called contact process.
Controlled, slow fermentation at temperatures below 18°C, the must is cooled to the desired fermentation temperature and the heat generated during fermentation is dissipated by heat exchangers. Cold fermentation increases the aromatic potential of wines, especially as far as the primary aromas are concerned, i.e. the fruit aromas. It is disputed whether cold-fermented wines can also develop a complex bouquet with secondary and tertiary aromas. In order to avoid fermentation problems, cold fermentation is carried out with special, cold-tolerant yeasts (cold fermentation yeasts).
in red wine production, cooling the mash to below 18°C during maceration. Cold maceration prevents fermentation and is used to better extract aromas, colors and tannins. It can last from a few hours to several days.
Clearing removes undesirable components from the wine after fermentation. These are yeast, cream of tartar, cloudy matter, remains of peel and pieces of fruit pulp. Means for this are protein, gelatine, bentonite and the isinglass.
The waiter's knife, also wine waiter's knife or sommelier's knife, is a pocket knife patented by Carl F. A. Wienke from Palatinate in 1882, which is used specifically for opening wine bottles. In this respect it is reminiscent of a handy bottle cap. The waiter's knife consists of a spindle, a small knife and a lever. The handiness of the knife is so pronounced that it can easily be carried in a shirt pocket. Due to its high practical importance and its quick and easy application, it can be found in almost every bar or pub.
To use it, first cut the neck of the bottle with the small knife so that the cork is exposed. The spindle is then screwed into the cork, after which the cork can be pulled out of the bottle using the leverage.
Carbonic acid is a by-product of alcoholic fermentation in wine, but it can also occur during malolactic fermentation. In white wines, carbonic acid ensures a pleasant mouthfeel and a fresh, sparkling, sparkling and slightly sour taste.The bouquet is experienced more intensively, especially in sparkling wines, the carbon dioxide is desired and added artificially. At the other extreme are red wines. Carbonation is undesirable and often a wine fault, especially with complex, full-bodied and tannin-rich red wines.