Piedmont Wine Lexicon - W

Walker Bay

Area (Ward) of the South African wine-growing district Overberg in the Coastal Region; the area on the coast of the Indian Ocean is characterized by its particularly mild maritime climate and its calcareous soils. Some of the best South African wines are produced here from the Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grape varieties.


largest wine-growing canton in Switzerland, which belongs to western Switzerland in terms of wine geography; The approximately 5250 hectares of vineyards extend on the slopes of the upper reaches of the Rhone from Lake Geneva to the border with Graubünden and are cultivated by more than 20,000 wineries, which often call the smallest, highly fragmented parcels their own. Over 50 grape varieties are cultivated in a relatively warm, dry climate, above all Gutedel (Chasselas), the basis of the well-known white wine Fendant, followed by Silvaner (Johannisberg), Marsanne (Ermitage) and the red wine grape varieties Pinot Noir and Gamay, from which Dôle is pressed , as well as Syrah. The Valais also has a number of local varieties such as Arvine, Amigne, Humagne blanc, Savagnin blanc, Cornalin and Humagne rouge. A specialty of the canton are its very aging sweet wines.


the sum of the work steps and measures from the harvest to the bottling of the finished wine, occasionally also including the grape production itself; it can take very different forms, depending on whether its aim is to produce white, rose or red wine, sweet predicate wine, liqueur or sparkling wine. The aim of winemaking must be to transfer the maximum of the taste quality potential contained in the grapes into the finished wine and to avoid the occurrence of wine defects or wine diseases. The prerequisite for this is to harvest and process the best possible grapes when they are ideally ripe, to process the grapes as gently as possible and to design further interventions in such a way that the original taste qualities of the wine are neither destroyed nor masked by other influences, but rather are preserved .

Wine error

Aroma and taste properties that have an unclean, disruptive or aggressive effect and, in extreme cases, make wines inedible; Wine defects in the narrower sense are defined as properties that are objectionable by the wine inspection, i.e. missing tones (odor defects) in the wine that are based on chemical or physical changes. On the other hand, if the defective properties are caused by microorganisms, it is wine diseases. In contrast to wine defects and wine diseases, simple wine defects are mostly due to too much or too little flavoring ingredients and can usually be remedied by simple measures such as deacidification, beautifying or other chemical aids or avoided by suitable vineyard work.


pleasantly alcoholic in smell and taste; The term wine language for strong, alcoholic wines with aromas that do not have a distinctive varietal or terroir character, and often also have little complexity or finesse. As a rule, they show neither pronounced primary nor tertiary aromas, but mainly secondary notes from alcoholic fermentation and acid degradation.

Wine diseases

defective properties of wines caused by microorganisms; they occur in low-acid wines with a high pH value, in low-extract wines - as a result of fermentation errors - and finally as a consequence of poor hygiene. The wine diseases include the vinegar sting, the lactic acid sting, the bacterial cloudiness, the mousing, the bitterness or the undesirable occurrence of Brettanomyces, which are caused by different types of lactic acid or vinegar bacteria or bacteria.caused by various yeast strains Wine diseases also include the bacterial odor of solvents.


largest cultivation area in Austria in the federal state of Lower Austria; around 10,000 winegrowers Winegrowers cultivate a total of 16,000 hectares (2001) of vineyards, which stretch from the Danube in the south to the border with the Czech Republic in the north and Slovakia in the east. The area is still in the area of ​​the Atlantic climate, whereby the influence of the Pannonian-continental climate zone is noticeable in the east: hot, dry summers and very cold winters are the rule. The soil spectrum ranges from loess and loam to black earth and primary rock. The range of varieties in the Weinviertel is dominated by more than 5% of the white wine grape variety Grüner Veltliner; This is followed by Welschriesling, Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, Müller-Thurgauer, Riesling and Traminer. A small part of the area is still planted in the mixed set. The most cultivated red wine grape variety is Portugieser before Zweigelt and Blauburger.

Pinot Blanc, Klevner, Pinot blanc, Pinot Bianco

White wine grape variety from the group of Burgundy varieties; it was probably created on the detour via the Pinot Gris through spontaneous mutation of the red Pinot Noir and has been in France since the 14th century. known. Pinot Blanc stands on around 17,000 hectares (2000) of vineyards worldwide, mainly in Italy, Germany, Austria, France and the Czech Republic. The variety is very demanding and needs warm locations and deep, nutrient-rich soils. It is sensitive to late frosts and susceptible to trickling. Their best wines are unusually rich in finesse and fruity, occasionally also slightly nutty. You gain density and structure through barrel expansion. Pinot Blanc does not enjoy the same reputation as Pinot Gris or Chardonnay, but produces just as interesting wines under optimal conditions.

Wine Advocate

The Wine Advocat is a specialist magazine for wines. It was founded in Maryland in 1978 by Robert McDowell Parker. He complained about the dependence of the then predominant wine magazines and founded his magazine - at that time under the name The Baltimore-Washington Wine Advocate - with the intention of doing better and being an advocate for consumers. His magazine is free from advertising in the sense of independence and objectivity. With his scale of values, Robert Parker is considered to be a pioneer of the 100-point Akala for wine ratings that is common today in the wine business. Even the best quality wines rarely achieve full marks. On the other hand, a wine below 85 points is considered meaningless under wine cellars and below 60 points simply as inedible.

Wine Enthusiast

The Wine Enthusiast is a specialist magazine for wines founded in the USA in 1988. The magazine appears 14 times a year and reports on wines from all over the world. The wine magazine reaches around 500,000 readers per edition.

Like every well-known wine magazine, the wine enthusiast regularly carries out wine evaluations, which are followed with excitement by the professional world and wine producers. The magazine's effort is enormous. Around 1000 wines from all over the world are tasted for each edition. The magazine also echoes cultural aspects related to wine such as the vineyards and the wine-growing regions.

The magazine uses its own rating system for wine ratings, which is based on a scale of 100 points.Only wines with a score of 80 or more are included in the ranking:

98 - 100 points: The most extraordinary and exquisite quality wines
94 - 97 points: Superb
90 - 93 points: Excellent
87 - 89 points: Very good, often with a good price-performance ratio
83 - 86 points: Good everyday wine, price-performance ratio also good
80 - 82 points: For rather simple occasions


Tartar is a combination of minerals in wine such as potassium and calcium with tartaric acid. At low temperatures, the product combines to form salty crystals, which form more and more compounds as they ripen and thus increase in mass. The crystals are completely harmless to health, feel like sugar candy in the mouth and have a slightly sour taste. Weinstein is considered a quality feature because a high volume stands for a mature wine that is also rich in minerals. That is why winemakers use terms such as wine stars and wine diamonds for the phenomenon.


Wein-Plus was founded in 1998 as a wine magazine by Utz Graafmann and his team. The company headquarters are in Erlangen. In the course of its young company history, the magazine has expanded considerably and also offers lovers of quality a wine guide, a blog, a wine search engine and a wine glossary with around 22,000 terms from the wine industry.

Every year, Wein-Plus awards the best Wine collections. Its rating system includes five stars for wine producers and a rating system from 80 to 100 points for wines, so that only wines with a rating of "very good" from Wein-Plus are included in the rating system.


Vermouth is a fortified wine that has its roots in Piedmont and was first produced in 1786. Nowadays, this aperitivo is one of the most popular drinks in the world. Vermouth is a wine flavored and fortified with herbs and spices. The alcohol content must be between 14.5 and 21.9 percent by volume. Two designations of origin for vermouth are specially protected by EU regulation: the French Vermouth de Chambéry and the Italian Vermut di Torino.


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