Piedmont Wine Lexicon - K


Second lowest category of German quality wines, lowest level of the predicate wines. Wines of all flavors that may not be improved are marketed under the name Kabinett. The minimum must weight is 67-82 ° Oe, depending on the growing area.


Commonly different calcium compounds, especially carbonate of lime (calcium carbonate, CACO3), which is of great importance in viticulture and cellar technology. Calcareous, i.e. mostly relatively lean, fresh soils are often found on the site of former seas. In Germany, some of the best white wines grow on them, in the French Pomerol region, excellent red wine made from Merlot comes from calcareous soils. In order to compensate for any lime deficiencies in the soil, it is fertilized with calcium compounds (limed) in order to improve the pH value and thus the availability of nutrients. In the cellar, carbonated lime is used in its pure form to de-acidify wines. The acids are neutralized, carbon dioxide escapes and the calcium is deposited in the form of insoluble compounds.

Cold treatment

cooling of must or wine; The aim of the treatment is on the one hand the cooling of fermenting musts to the desired fermentation temperature, on the other hand the cold stabilization of ready-to-fill wines through the accelerated precipitation of tartar and cold-unstable wine constituents such as protein. In order to save energy, ground tartar can be added to the wine using the so-called contact method.

Cold fermentation

controlled, slow fermentation at temperatures below 18 ° C, the must is cooled to the desired fermentation temperature and the heat generated during fermentation is dissipated through heat exchangers. Cold fermentation increases the aromatic potential of wines, especially with regard to the primary aromas, i.e. the fruit aromas. It is controversial whether cold-fermented wines can also develop a complex bouquet with secondary and tertiary aromas. In order to avoid fermentation disturbances, the cold fermentation is carried out with special, cold-tolerant yeasts (cold fermentation yeasts).

Cold maceration

when making red wine, cooling the mash to below 18 ° C during maceration. The cold maceration prevents fermentation and improves the extraction of aromas, colors and tannins. It can last from a few hours to several days.


During the clarification process, unwanted components are removed from the wine after fermentation. These are yeast, tartar, sediment, peel remains and pulp particles. Means for this are egg white, gelatine, bentonite and the isinglass.

Waiter's knife

The waiter's knife, also known as a wine waiter's knife or sommelier's knife, is a pocket knife patented by Carl F. A. Wienke from Palatinate in 1882, which is specially used to open wine bottles. In this respect it is reminiscent of a handy crown cap. The waiter's knife consists of a spindle, a small knife and a lever. The handiness of the knife is so pronounced that it can easily be carried in a shirt pocket. Due to its high practical importance as well as its quick and easy application, it can be found in almost every bar or pub.

To use it, the neck of the bottle is first cut with the small knife so that the cork is exposed. The spindle is then screwed into the cork, after which the cork can be pulled out of the bottle using the leverage.

Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a by-product of alcoholic fermentation in wine, but can also arise during malolactic fermentation.Carbonic acid ensures a pleasant mouthfeel in white wines and a fresh, tingling, tangy and slightly sour taste. The bouquet is experienced more intensely. Carbon dioxide is particularly desirable for sparkling wines and is added artificially. Red wines are at the other extreme. Carbonic acid is undesirable and often a wine fault, especially with complex, full-bodied and tannin-rich red wines.


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